“Tess of the D’urbervilles” is Thomas Hardy’s most famous novel. Under Hardy’s pen, the heroine Tess is created as an attractive and warm-hearted pure woman, who has the quality of endurance and self-sacrifice. Tess has long been regarded as the most exceptional woman character in English literary history. However , the life of this pure woman is tragic. She is firstly seduced, then abandoned and finally driven to murder for which she is hanged. What is responsible for her tragic fate? What is the reason for a pure woman to become a murderer? We couldn’t help thinking over these questions again and again. From the tragic story of Tess’ short life, we can see in a deeper sense that it is the capitalist society of the time that has ruined her. Living in a society overwhelmed by capitalist Law, religion and state apparatus, Tess, a poor peasant, inevitably leads a tragic life and finally goes to her collapse. This paper is trying to make comments on the social causes of Tess’ tragedy.